Information United Kingdom
Southern part of the island of Great Britain, limited by Scotland to the north and Wales to the west . England is one of the four parties , with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom. England covers “only” 57 % of the area of the island of Great Britain, but concentrates 85% of its inhabitants. The average population density is greater than 370 inhabitants per km2 , a figure bound especially to history, to early and magnitude of the industrial revolution , precipitating urbanization.
The bases of this industrialization is largely missing, be it coal mining, part of metallurgy (steel, shipbuilding) and textiles. The relay was taken by other branches (electrical engineering, chemistry), but mainly by the services. The London region has become the richest and most active region in the UK. Very representative of the current economic organization, it has only 10% of its workforce in the industry.
The main cities of England are: Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leeds.
The kingdoms of England and Scotland have cohabited as independent sovereign nations with their own monarchs and political structures from the ninth century. Through the Act of Union (1707), England and Scotland, which were already united since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, came to an agreement for a political union as a Kingdom of Britain.
The Act of Union 1800 unified the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The independence of the Irish Free State in 1922 following the separation of the island of Ireland two years ago with six of the nine counties of the province of Ulster remaining attached to the UK, where in 1927 the current official name “United Kingdom of Great -Bretagne and Northern Ireland. “
Official name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Type of Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliamentary democracy.
Head of State: Elizabeth II, Queen of England (6 February 1952).
Head of Government, Prime Minister David Cameron (12 May 2010).
Area: 244,820 km2
England: 130 395 km2
Scotland: 78 782 km2
Wales: 20 779 km2
Northern Ireland: 13 843 km2
Capital: London (London).
Main cities: London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Cardiff, Belfast.
Official language: English.
Current Language: English.
Currency: Pound Sterling – symbol: £.
National Day: June 14th official birthday of the Queen.
Population (2013): 64,10M inhabitants.
England: 53,90 million.
London (7,82M), Manchester (2,62M), Birmingham (2,28m), Leeds (1,49M), Sheffield (0.64 m).
Scotland: 5.30m * – Glasgow (1,16M), Edinburgh (0,49M).
3,10m Wales – Cardiff (0.32M).
1,81M Northern Ireland – Belfast (0.27m).
* Figures from the 2011 census published December 17, 2012
Active Population (2013): 30,76M (82.9% services, industry 15.8%, agriculture 1.3%).
Density 258.07 inhabitants / km².
Population growth: 0.2 to 0.3% by 2050.
Life expectancy (M / F) (2011): 79 years / 83 years.
Literacy rate: 99%.
Religions: Two religions State: Anglicanism in England and Presbyterianism in Scotland. Anglicans: 35%. Roman Catholics: 9%. Presbyterians: 4%. Other Christians 14%. Muslims: 2.7%. Hindus: 1%. Sikhs 0.6%. Jews 0.5%. Buddhist 0.3%.
Other: 0.2%. No religion: 33%. (Source: British Social Attitudes).
Human Development Index (2013 – UNDP): 0.892. 14th in the world (28th in 2011 and 18th in 2006).
GDP (2014): € 2231.5 billion – 5th world economy.
GDP per capita (2014): € 34,579.
growth rate (2014): 2.6%
Unemployment rate (2014): 5.8% (the youth unemployment rate: 20.5%)
Budget balance (2014): 5.4% GDP (forecast 4.4% for 2015)
Public debt (in Maastricht): 89% (2014).
Trade balance (2013) – 86.4 billion € [Export: € 407.4 billion – Import: € 493.8 billion].
Main clients (2013): Switzerland (12.8%) United States (10.6%), Germany (8.2%), Netherlands (6.9%), France (5.8%), Ireland (5.2%).
Main suppliers: Germany (13.2%), China (8.3%), Netherlands (8.1%), the USA (7.0%), France (5.7%), Belgium (4 , 7%).
Share of main sectors in GDP:
Sources Available: DG-Treasury, European Commission, IMF
Consulates of France: London, Edinburgh.
French Community to the United Kingdom (31 December 2013): 126 239 French registered (+ 0.2% compared to 2012), including 120,707 in the riding of London and 5532 in the riding of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The total number of French citizens living in the UK is estimated at 350,000.
British community in France: 400,000 (estimate).
economic situation in the United Kingdom
Human beings can be traced in England 800000 years ago.
Rome invaded Britain in 43 AD. It was incorporated in the Roman Empire under the name of Britannia province. It developed a Greco-Roman culture. Roman law applied. The Romans developed the infrastructure and the architecture.
Christianity came around the 4th century.
When the Romans withdrew, England and Scotland were the targets of Saxons and Viking raids. The raiders then settled developing the Anglo-Saxon culture.
From the 7th to the 10th century, a dozen of kingdoms ruled England. It is only at the end of this period that a first English Kingdom emerged.
In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, crossed the channel to tale the throne of England. The “Normands” were from Scandinavian origin but they had settled on the North-West Coast of France. This new French-speaking aristocracy had a lasting effect on the English language.
The House of Plantagenet, originating the French province of Anjou, inherited the throne of England. They ruled England for three centuries. Henry II, the first Plantagenet King, extended the empire to a large portion of France, Scotland and Ireland. The Plantagenet claimed the throne of France; hence started the Hundred Years War.
Then, it started the “War of the two Roses” which saw the Tudor family taking over the Kingdom.
Renaissance crossed the Channel and changed profoundly the arts and education. This is also when England started to develop naval skills.
Henry VIII broke up with the Catholic Church due some disagreements on his divorce. While the Reform, which started in Germany, was theological, the British split was political.
Henry VIII declared himself Head of the Church of England.
England started to expand. The first American colony was founded in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh. England was also moving east, competing with the French and the Dutch.
A civil war started in the mid-17th century between the supporters of the Parliament and those of the King. The Parliament won. Oliver Cromwell, leader of the Parliamentalists became Lord Protector and ruled England until his death.
The Monarchs came back but it was agreed that the King and the Parliament should rule together.
In 1707, the English and Scottish Parliaments agreed on the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Science and industry flourished. The international trade of the Great Britain exploded, protected by the powerful Royal Navy. The Kingdom was becoming the British Empire..
While Europe was ravaged by the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars, England maintained certain stability. It took advantage of the weakening of the continental nations to ever increase its Empire, the biggest the world has ever known.
In 1914, Britain entered the war to defend Belgium from the Germans. As every other nation, except for the USA, the United Kingdom was weakened by this conflict.
In 1940, again on the Allies side, the UK was one of the victorious nations but it may no doubt that the status of “first Super Power” had vanished.
The United Kingdom joined the European community on January 1st 1973. But it has kept its distances from the whole European project by not joining the Euro currency, or the Schengen Treaty.
Good to know
The Pound Sterling (ISO 4217: GBP) is the currency of the United Kingdom. The Bank of England is the central bank for the Pound Sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The Pound Sterling is the world’s oldest currency still in use. It is, also, the fourth most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market and the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves.
The euro to Pound Sterling exchange rate converts at 0.76 on May the 30th, 2016
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To do business
Personal Income Tax
The United Kingdom applies a progressive rate scheme with thresholds that may vary depending on the years. For years from 2015 to 2016:
|Taxable income (GBP)||Rate (%)|
|Up to 11,000||0|
|From 11,001 to 43,000||20|
|From 43,001 to 150,000||40|
Coroprate Income Tax
The United Kingdom applies a rate of 20 % on the profits of the companies.
The United Kingdom applies a general rate of 20 %.
First necessity or cultural products are either exempted or taxed at a reduced rate of 5%.
|Type||In service||On order|
|Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4||88||41|
|B797 E3D (AEW)||6|
|B737 P8 (MPA)||9 planned|
|BN 2 (Recce)||3|
|Global Express (Recce)||5|
|King Air 350 (Recce)||5||2 planned|
|SA330 Puma HC2||21|
|Sea King HAR3 (SAR)||10|
|G 115 (Babcock)||119|
|G120 TP (Affinity)||23 planned|
|King Air 200/350||8|
|Phenom 100 (Affinity)||5 planned|
|T6C (Affinity)||10 planned|
|Type||In service||On order|
|Type||In service||On order|
|Sea King ASaC (AEW)||8|
|AW101 Merlin HM2||25|
|AW101 Merlin HC3||18|
|Sea King HC4||6|
|Sea King HU5 (SAR)||9|
|KingAir 350 (Ascent)||4|
DHFS (Defense Helicopter Flying School)
|Type||In service||On order|